1898

In United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898), the Court ruled that practically everyone born in the United States is a U.S. citizen.

Wong Kim Ark, who was born in San Francisco to Chinese parents around 1871, was denied re-entry to the United States after a trip abroad in 1894. He challenged the government's refusal to recognize his citizenship. The Supreme Court ruled in his favor, holding that the citizenship language in the Fourteenth Amendment encompassed essentially everyone born in the U.S.—even the U.S.-born children of foreigners—and could not be limited in its effect by an act of Congress.

黃金德(Wong Kim Ark)生於美國舊金山,父母都是美國合法居民。黃金德1890年回中國,再返美時,海關認定他是美國公民而允許他入境。1894年,黃金德再次前往中國,1895年返美時,卻因排華法案而被拒絕入境,黃金德乃提起訴訟。

1897年,在United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898) 一案中, 最高法院大法官認定:所有在美國出生的華人後裔,其父母非中國外交官員或公職人員,且在美國擁有永久住所者,在出生時即為美國公民。黃金德打贏這場官司後,他的三個兒子也都拿到公民權。「在美國出生,即為美國公民」的法理,掀起外國孕婦前往美國生產的「生育旅遊」潮。

Photo Credits: Wikipedia

 

Grand daughter (left) and great granddaughter (middle) of Wong Kim Ark and Dr. Chang C. Chen (right).

黃金德的孫女(左一)與曾孫女()與作者合影

 

 

 

 

///此展獻給邱彰律師摯愛的兒子陳澤民

創作者介紹
創作者 華人歷史家協會 的頭像
華人歷史家協會

華人歷史家協會部落格

華人歷史家協會 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()