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1943

The 1943 Treaty was for the relinquishment of extraterritorial rights in China.

The Act repealed all the unfair treaties between China and the U.S. and allowed Chinese to immigrate for the first time since the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.

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1937

A“Paper Daughter”with Six Names

Louie Gum To was born in Zhongshan, China in 1920 and died in America

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1927

Martha Lum was denied entry to a public school for white children.

In 1924, a nine-year old Chinese-American named Martha Lum was prohibited from attending Rosedale Consolidated High School in Bolivar County, Mississippi solely because she was of Chinese descent. The Supreme Court held that Gong Lum had not shown that there were not segregated schools accessible for the education of Martha Lum in Mississippi; therefore, Martha Lum was not allowed to go to the school for white children.

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1922

The Cable Act of 1922 forbade Chinese men from marrying white women.

The Anti-Miscegenation Act of 1889 prohibited Chinese men from marrying white women. The Cable Act of 1922 terminated citizenship of white American women who married Asian men. These laws were not fully overturned until the 1950s.

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1916

Quok Shee was the longest involuntary resident of Angel Island.

Immigrant Quok Shee was the "alleged wife" of Chew Hoy Quong. When she arrived in San Francisco, she was detained and interrogated for nearly 2 years on Angel Island, mostly because Chinese women were suspected to be prostitutes in that era.

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1912

Tye Leung Schulze became the first Chinese-American woman to vote in the presidential primary.

Tye Leung was born in San Francisco in 1887. When she was 14, her parents arranged for her to marry an older man. She ran away and sought refuge with Donaldina Cameron. She became the first Chinese-American woman to pass the civil service examination. Not only was she the first Chinese woman hired to work at Angel Island, but she also became the first Chinese-American woman to vote in a presidential primary election when she cast a ballot in San Francisco on May 19, 1912.

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1909
The Angry Angel of Chinatown, Donaldina Cameron, rescued 3000 Chinese slave girls.

Donaldina Cameron ( July 26, 1869-January 4, 1968 ) was a Presbyterian missionary who advocated for social justice. She rescued and educated more than 3000 Chinese immigrant girls and women who were sold into slavery during her ministry from 1895 to 1934. Cameron House still stands today in San Francisco.

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官司贏了之後

五年前開始的一個老案子,在喬治亞州亞特蘭大市的聯邦法院展開。
被告是53歲的台灣女士,她丈夫的生意在美國做得非常大,招來同行嫉妒,透過丈夫在公司的情婦去海關密告丈夫逃漏稅。發現氣氛不對,丈夫及合夥人全都躲到中國了。

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1909

Bow Kum's murder led to the Chinatown gang war.

Born to a poor family in Guangdong, Bow Kum was sold by her parents for $40 and later bought by Lau He Dong, a member of the Snakehead gang in San Francisco, for $3,000.

Lau fell in love with her, but Bow Kum chose to marry a gardener and ran away with him to New York. Lau's love quickly turned to hate and he asked his gang to seek revenge. On August 15,1909, Bow Kum was brutally murdered. Her husband was also part of a Chinese gang and they fought back. The war between the Chinatown gangs lasted more than a year. On January 11,1910, the alleged killers, Lau He Dong and Lau Shong, were acquitted because each of their gangs produced contradictory evidence, and the jury could not decide who the real killers were.

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1898

In United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898), the Court ruled that practically everyone born in the United States is a U.S. citizen.

Wong Kim Ark, who was born in San Francisco to Chinese parents around 1871, was denied re-entry to the United States after a trip abroad in 1894. He challenged the government's refusal to recognize his citizenship. The Supreme Court ruled in his favor, holding that the citizenship language in the Fourteenth Amendment encompassed essentially everyone born in the U.S.—even the U.S.-born children of foreigners—and could not be limited in its effect by an act of Congress.

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1896

Polly Bemis became a legendary Chinese-American pioneer.

Polly Bemis was sold by her peasant father for two bags of much-needed seed. She was smuggled into the United States in 1872 and sold as a slave in San Francisco. In 1894, she married Charles Bemis to prevent herself from being deported.

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1885

In Tape v. Hurley, 66 Cal. 473(1885), Mamie Tape fought for the right to public education.

Tape v. Hurley, 66 Cal. 473 (1885) was a landmark case in the California Supreme Court. In 1884, Mamie, then eight years old, was denied admission to the Spring Valley School due to her Chinese ancestry. Her parents sued the San Francisco Board of Education and won. Their argument was that the school violated California Political Code. The California Supreme Court upheld the decision. Justice McGuire wrote, "To deny a child, born of Chinese parents in this state, entrance to the public schools would be a violation of the law of the state and the Constitution of the United States."

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1882

The Chinese Exclusion Act was signed into law by President Chester A. Arthur in 1882.

It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in the U.S. history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. The act followed the Angell Treaty of 1880, a set of revisions to the U.S. - China Burlingame Treaty of 1868 that allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration.

The Act was initially intended to last for ten years, but was renewed in 1892 with the Geary Act becoming permanent in 1902. The Chinese Exclusion Act was the first law implemented to prevent a specific ethnic group from immigrating to the United States. It was repealed by the Magnuson Act of 1943.

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1874

In Chu Lung v. Freeman 92 U.S. 275 (1874), twenty-two Chinese women fought for their dignity.

In Chu Lung v. Freeman, 92 U.S. 275, Chu Lung and 21 other Chinese women who arrived in San Francisco were classified as "lewd and debauched" and, therefore, must be prostitutes. Upon hearing testimony from a witness that only lewd Chinese women wore colorful bellybands, the judge found all 22 women guilty. However, the Supreme Court sided with the women. It ruled that Congress, not the states, had the power to regulate immigration. It declared that California law requiring a bond for all ill-defined class of people overstepped its boundary and that the women should be released.

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1868

Burlingame Treaty was the first equal treaty between the U.S. and China.

Granting China most favored nation status, the Burlingame-Seward Treaty formally established friendly ties between China and the United States. The Treaty advocated equal treatment of China and a welcoming stance toward Chinese immigrants.

This Treaty also opened the door for Chinese laborers to immigrate to the U.S. During economic depression, white laborers blamed cheap Chinese laborers for their unemployment. Congress amended The Burlingame Treaty and in its place, The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1882.

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1852

Ah Toy's lawsuit was dismissed due to the ruling in People v. Hall in 1852.

The most notorious Chinese-American prostitute, Ah Toy, sued Yee Ah Tye for demanding that her Dupont Street prostitutes pay him a tax. In the 1854 case of People v. Hall, 4 Cal.399, the judge ruled that the Chinese had no business in American courts, and could not testify nor become witnesses. Ah Toy's lawsuit was ultimately dismissed.

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